Friday, May 1, 2015

Research Blog #10: Abstract, Bibliography and Link to Paper

Abstract:
The Topic of privatization has been hugely debated over the past few decades and has especially become a hot topic with the rise of for-profit universities.  My paper addresses the issues associated with for-profit universities and their ethicality as it stands in the current economic climate.  Specifically I talk about how privatization has created sky-rocketing growth for for-profit universities due to a gap left behind by public universities losing funding.  I explore what is causing for-profits to grow so quickly and I also look at whether it is worth it to attend a for-profit university by looking at facts and cases pertaining to for-profits.  I also look into who is benefiting from for-profits if students aren’t by looking into companies such as the Apollo group.  My paper offers valuable insight into for-profits and how it relates to privatization by bringing to light many issues that are associated with for-profit universities.

https://docs.google.com/a/scarletmail.rutgers.edu/document/d/1qLOhZa5h3Wv_nz5FusLzGUu9jsSrVP5BfB6Qf69kKOU/edit?usp=sharing
Work Cited
Appel, Hannah, and Astra Taylor. "Education With A Debt Sentence: For-Profit Colleges As American Dream Crushers And Factories Of Debt." New Labor Forum (Sage Publications Inc.) 24.1 (2015): 31-36. Business Source Premier. Web. 3 Mar. 2015.
Denice, P. "Does It Pay To Attend A For-Profit College? Vertical And Horizontal Stratification In Higher Education." Social Science Research 52.(2015): 161-178. Scopus®. Web. 10 Mar. 2015.
Garity, Fox. “Where Did They Go? Market Share Trends Of Business Student Enrollment From 1996 to 2008.” Journal Of Education For Business 87.6 (2012): 309- 315. Academic Search Premier. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.
Li, Helen. "The Rising Cost of Higher Education: A Supply & Demand Analysis." Web. 20 April 2015. <http://www.treasury.gov/connect/blog/Documents/20121212_Economics of Higher Ed_vFINAL.pdf>.
Lyall, Katharine C. and Kathleen R. Sell.  “The De Facto Privatization of American Public Higher Education.”  Change  (Jan./Feb. 2006): 6-13.
Meister, Bob.  "Debt and Taxes: Can the Financial Industry Save Public Universities?" Representations 16.1 (Fall 2011): 128-155. Online.  5 Jan. 2014.
Mettler, Suzanne. "Degrees Of Inequality: How The Politics Of Higher Education Sabotaged The American Dream." Publishers Weekly 261.1 (2014): 45. Literary Reference Center. Web. 30 Apr. 2015.
Nasiripour, Shahien. "'Corinthian 15' Becomes 'Corinthian 100' As Federal Student Debt Strike Grows." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 30 Mar. 2015. Web. 15 Apr. 2015. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/30/corinthian-100-debt-strike_n_6970284.html>.
Novotney, Amy.  “Facing Up to Debt.”  American Psychological Association.  gradPsych Magazine 11.1 (January 2013): 32.  Print and web.  5 Jan. 2014.
Turner, S. (2006). For-profit colleges in the context of the market for higher education. In D. Breneman, B. Pusser, & S. Turner (Eds.), Earnings from learning: The rise of for-profit universities (pp.51-68). Albany, NY: State University of New York
Twenge, Jean.  Generation Me: Why Today's Young Americans Are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled--and More Miserable Than Ever... New York: Atria Books, 2007. Print.

“Understanding Privatization” collection – see bibliographic information for each author on the last pages of that collection.

Argument and Counter Argument

Argument:
If students aren't benefiting then who is?  Mettlers talks about how “hundreds of thousands of young people, many of whom come from backgrounds with already limited opportunities had suffered further because they became victimized by unscrupulous profiteers and their fraudulent schools” (Mettlers).  These students are just being victimized by for profits which make it clear the institutions themselves must be the ones benefiting hugely.  In Mettlers case, she says that, “conversely, it noted that schools themselves as well as lenders, loan services, accrediting bodies, and others had profited handsomely, and in some cases, unconscionably” (Mettlers).  For- profit schools are making huge amounts of money in such ways that seem to be wildly unethical.  In the case of Sperling and the Apollo Group, students are referenced as billions of dollars of income.  When students are not gaining any worth from the degree they receive, these numbers become sickening to read as for-profits are generating “unconscionable” profits from something that many see as worthless compared to other colleges.
Counter Argument:
There are a few counter arguments to the points being made about for profit colleges and in some people’s minds for-profit colleges are not all bad.  Some people argue that many students who attend for-profit colleges may have never had the chance to attend any college had it not been for for-profits.  Denice stated that “for-profit colleges do appear to be extending access to higher education, at least to individuals on the margins; that is, for-profit students may not have pursued college in a market consisting only of public or private, nonprofit institutions but they are also more advantaged—and thus more likely to enter higher education—than those who stop their education after completing high school” (Denice).  Basically, it is being argued that for-profits are simply catering to a specific part of people who had unmet needs; those of which who have the advantages to be able to attend college but not the desire or ability to attend a public or private institution.  For this reason, it is also argued that the worth of for-profit colleges is lower simply due to the quality of student that attends them compared to traditional non-profit schools.  It is possible that students who go to for-profits may just be the students left behind by non-profit schools and therefore are not as desirable as job candidates.

Thursday, April 30, 2015

Research Blog #7: Case

The case that that I am using to illustrate my argument is based on the Corinthian Colleges.  The Corinthian Colleges are a group of for-profit colleges that recently have been discredited.  Basically what happened is a bunch of students graduated from Corinthian Colleges and when they went out to get jobs with their hard earned degree no one would hire them as the colleges we not recognized by most institutions.  Now the students affected by this have formed the Corinthian 100 which is a group of students who are refusing to pay their loans due to the fact they have a basically useless degree.  This is an interesting case because “An internal document from Corinthian Colleges, Inc. specified that its target demographic is “isolated,” “impatient” individuals with “low self-esteem.” (Appel).  Basically these internal documents revealed that the Corinthian Colleges knew what they were doing because they weren't targeting just any person looking for a college degree.  Instead, they were clearly targeting the more vulnerable student who they knew wouldn't look into the accreditation of the college.  These are interesting points to use to look into for-profit colleges because the Corinthian 100 is still a current group who are still battling to not pay the debt they owe on the essentially useless degrees they have received from the Corinthian Colleges.

Appel, Hannah, and Astra Taylor. "Education With A Debt Sentence: For-Profit Colleges As American Dream Crushers And Factories Of Debt." New Labor Forum (Sage Publications Inc.) 24.1 (2015): 31-36. Business Source Premier. Web. 3 Mar. 2015.


Research Blog #6: Visual


I will use this visual to illustrate a vital point that will lead me through my paper.  As can be seen in this graph, over the past 30 years non for-profit colleges have leveled off in number of institutions.  However, you can also see that over the past 30 years, the number of for-profit institutes have sky-rocketed.  Basically what is happening is that a gap of education needs is being left behind by non-for-profit schools.  The desire for a college education is higher than ever and for-profit’s have noticed this and have been using it as a way to fill this gap left by traditional colleges.  The reason for this is that “Capital is required to fuel expansion plans and increase enrollments. Access to capital is related to the revenue sources of each sector. Reductions in state and private donations and a tightening of credit policies have limited the ability of public and not-for-profit institutions to engage in expansion plans. For-profit institutions are mainly tuition-driven and have access to capital markets as funding sources for expansion strategies. The relative advantage of public institutions decreases as direct government subsidies to institutions decline” (Turner, 2006).  Basically, privatization and loss of funding for universities has created an environment in the past 30 years in which for-profit colleges thrive.

Research Blog #3: How might privatization connect to your topic?

Privatization of colleges in the United States has been a growing topic of debate for the past few decades.  Starting around the 1970’s colleges in the United stated began to lose funding from the government and move more towards tuition based funding to grow their campuses and to give educations to students.  “Public universities that used to cluster around the 50 percent public investment point a decade ago now typically have moved down toward 30 percent or less in public support, while other stakeholders have increased their investment shares” (Lyall).  Basically what this means is that while the government is no longer funding colleges as much as they used to; private stakeholders are increasing their investments as a source of revenue for them.  Possibly due to the growing privatization of colleges, “the price of public higher education has been growing at twice the rate of the economy, twice as fast as health insurance, and three to four times more quickly than consumer prices in general” (Meister).  Clearly the rate of tuition increase is growing at an un-natural rate compared to the rest of the economy pointing towards private investors using privatization as a source for financial gain.  This increasing privatization of colleges is largely affecting people’s behaviors both on the student side as well as the administrations side which is causing problems which must be addressed.   Over the decades since the 1970’s the growth of privatization of the education system has caused adverse effects on the mental and social states of students enrolling in college as well as causing a transformation of colleges into a lucrative investments opportunity and source of revenue for private companies.  I will look at how privatization is affecting debt of students and who is benefiting from this debt.  will mainly focus on for-profit colleges to look at and try to find who is benefiting from for-profit colleges.  I also will take a look at for profit colleges as a form of modern servitude because students are effectively indentured to the college they attended for their entire life if they are not able to pay off their debt.

Literature Review 5

Visual

Citation
Appel, Hannah, and Astra Taylor. "Education With A Debt Sentence: For-Profit Colleges As American Dream Crushers And Factories Of Debt." New Labor Forum (Sage Publications Inc.) 24.1 (2015): 31-36. Business Source Premier. Web. 3 Mar. 2015.

Summary
In this paper the author talks about a theory where he equates what for-profit universities are doing to other industries.  They ask the question of if cooperation preyed on low-income mothers by claiming to sell “the American dream” would that be ethically correct.  I think that this is an interesting point of view when you think about the implications this has on for-profit universities. 

Author
Hannah Appel is a mother, activist, and assistant professor of anthropology at UCLA. Her work looks at the everyday life of capitalism and the economic imagination. She has been active with Occupy Wall Street since 2011.

Astra Taylor is a writer, documentary filmmaker (including Zizek! and Examined Life), and activist. Her book, The People’s Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age (Metropolitan Books), was published last April. She helped launch the Occupy offshoot Strike Debt and its Rolling Jubilee campaign.”

Key terms
Debt- The authors talk about debt and how it is being caused by for-profit colleges.

Education- The authors compare types of education and their worth.

Quotes
“While the for-profit business model has generally served investors well, it has failed students. Retention rates are abysmal and tuitions sky-high. For-profit colleges can be up to twice as expensive as Ivy League universities and routinely cost five or six times the price of a community college education.”

“The Medical Assistant program at for-profit Health College in Fresno, California costs $22,275. A comparable program at Fresno City College costs $1,650.”

“An internal document from Corinthian Colleges, Inc. specified that its target demographic is “isolated,” “impatient” individuals with “low self-esteem.”

Value
Appel points out how somehow people have become jaded by what universities have been doing in the past decades.  This is an interesting starting point for my paper because it poses the question of, who is really benefiting from universities increase in tuition prices.



Literature Review 4

Visual

Citation
Denice, P. "Does It Pay To Attend A For-Profit College? Vertical And Horizontal Stratification In Higher Education." Social Science Research 52.(2015): 161-178. Scopus®. Web. 10 Mar. 2015.

Summary
Denice wrote about for-profit colleges in “Does it Pay To Attend a For-Profit College?” where she discusses whether for-profits even give anything of value to students who attend them.  She does studies on the types of people who attend for-profit colleges and found that students who attend for-profit colleges actually end up making less than people who attend other colleges. She also goes on to show that people who attend for-profits end up with much more student debt.

Author
Patrick Denice is a research analyst at the Center on Reinventing Public Education and has a degree from Boston College.

Key terms
Economic returns- the return student get from attending a for-profit college.
Stratification- Sections of people that is made by different reasons.  Denice talks about stratification in the sense of whether for-profits will improve your worth like non-for-profits do.

Quotes
“those who complete some college or an associate’s degree by attending a for-profit college at all in the college career (either exclusively or in combination with nonprofit colleges) appear to earn no more or no less than those with only a high school education”

“For-profit students are significantly more likely to be black or of mixed race, and significantly less likely to be non-black and non-Hispanic, than either high school graduates or nonprofit college students.”

“In these ways, for-profit colleges do appear to be extending access to higher education, at least to individuals on the margins; that is, for-profit students may not have pursued college in a market consisting only of public or private, nonprofit institutions but they are also more advantaged—and thus more likely to enter higher education—than those who stop their education after completing high school.”

Value
Denice creates an interesting point of view for me to use on my paper because in this case it is being found that not only are for-profits not helping students but are also actively hurting them by putting students more in debt.  In addition, she found that a much higher percentage of students at for-profit colleges where minorities.  This is an interesting parallel that I might end up looking at in my paper.